Once you file the Trademark application with the Registrar of Trademarks, it goes through different stages. In the beginning, the Trademark Examiner examines the trademark application, and if he discovers that the application is incorrect or resembles an existing trademark, lacks distinctiveness, and is not valid as per various grounds listed in the Trade Marks Act, then he may raise objection against registration of such trademark.
If the Examiner raises any objection, the applicant has to submit a trademark objection reply and prove how his mark qualifies for a valid registration. If the Trademark examiner is satisfied with the reply of the applicant, he may accept the trademark. Then, he will publish it in Trademark Journal, and proceed toward registration.
However, if he is not satisfied with the reply to the Examination Report, he shall call the applicant for a Trademark Hearing by issuing a show-cause notice.
They conduct a trademark hearing, also known as a TLA hearing or Show Cause Hearing, when the Trademark Examiner raises objections to the trademark application, and even after receiving a response to the examination report, he remains dissatisfied with the submissions.
The applicant can attend the trademark hearing either in person or through a Trademark Agent/Attorney. However, if no objections are raised, the application is approved and then published in the Journal.